工藝與設備

高壓渦輪導向器前支撐電子束焊接工藝

韋 瑾,康文軍,王建濤,陳 濤

(中國航發西安航空發動機有限公司,西安 710021)

摘 要:基于對GE (美國通用電氣公司)高壓渦輪導向器前支撐設計要求的分析,采用與零件焊接接頭等厚的INCO718 平板進行試驗,初選出一道焊接參數,同時變化束流和焊接速度,最終制定了一組有裕度的焊接工藝參數。采用該組工藝參數焊接的零件經目視、X 光、熒光以及金相檢查,焊縫內部無未熔合、氣孔、裂紋等缺陷,最小焊縫寬度、最小熔化寬度以及表面質量均滿足GE 電子束焊接P8TF10 標準的要求。

關鍵詞: 高壓渦輪導向器前支撐; 電子束焊接; INCO718; 裕度

高壓渦輪導向器前支撐是中國航空發動機集團西安航空發動機有限公司 (以下簡稱 “西航公司”)研發的第一個GE (美國通用電氣公司)電子束焊接試制零件。在試制過程中,存在眾多難點和不確定性。首先,焊接標準P8TF10 未曾應用過,需要對標準進行消化和準確理解。其次,零件的材料為INCO718+和GTD222,以前未進行過這兩種材料的焊接。本研究旨在通過試驗,確定該零件合理的焊接工藝參數,完成零件的試制,為后續GE 零件的電子束焊接提供參考,為同類材料的焊接做好技術儲備。

1 高壓渦輪導向器前支撐設計要求

圖1 為高壓渦輪導向器前支撐結構示意圖,該零件由前端法蘭、高壓渦輪內部前導向器和后端法蘭經電子束焊接而成。

圖1 高壓渦輪導向器前支撐結構示意圖

前端法蘭材料為INCO718+,高壓渦輪內部前導向器材料為GTD222,后端法蘭材料為GTD222。INCO718+材料的化學成分見表1,零件設計要求見表2。

表1 INCO718+材料的化學成分 %

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表2 高壓渦輪導向器前支撐設計要求

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2 試驗方法

2.1 試驗材料及設備

因INCO718+材料采購價格昂貴,試驗材料選同類INCO718 板材代替,試板規格為150 mm×100 mm×7.2 mm,試驗設備為德國IGM 高壓電子束焊機,型號為KS55-G150,最高電壓150 kV,最大功率15 kW。

2.2 焊前工藝準備

為了保證焊接質量,焊前必須去除試板表面的氧化皮、油污以及其他污染物,提高表面純凈度,以防止氣孔等缺陷的產生。試驗時,對試板表面打磨清理后,使用綢布蘸取丙酮對試板表面進行擦拭,直到試板不再變黑為止。

2.3 電子束焊接試驗方案

先對試板進行焊接試驗,初選出至少1 道焊接參數,使其滿足標準P8TF10 (GE 電子束焊)目視檢查(表2)和最小焊縫寬度的要求(如圖2所示),然后以選出的初步參數為基礎,通過同時變化束流和焊接速度,設計一組有裕度的焊接工藝參數,再驗證該組焊接工藝參數是否滿足要求。試驗時,保持高壓和聚焦電流不變,選擇電壓為150 kV 和表面聚焦電流。通過調整束流、速度和函數進行試驗。

圖2 最小焊縫寬度與接頭厚度的關系

2.3.1 第一次焊接試驗

高壓渦輪導向器前支撐試板第一次焊接工藝參數見表3。采用表3 中的參數對試板進行第一次焊接試驗,其焊縫形貌如圖3 所示,其中焊縫2、焊縫3、焊縫4、焊縫11 成形較好,焊縫5、焊縫6、焊縫7、焊縫8、焊縫9、焊縫10 正面可見結晶線,存在一定裂紋傾向。結晶線產生的原因:一是焊接熱輸入量較大; 二是焊接速度較快。從表3 可以看出,焊縫4 和11 同時滿足最小焊縫寬度和表面成形的要求。但焊縫4 的最小焊縫寬度為2.06 mm,非常接近標準允許的下限,故不能作為一道合適的基礎工藝參數。焊縫11 的熱輸入量太大,也不是理想的基礎工藝參數。故需要進一步進行試驗,為了減小焊縫裂紋傾向,同時必須滿足最小焊縫寬度要求,下一步試驗方向是降低焊接速度和微調函數。

2.3.2 第二次焊接試驗

高壓渦輪導向器前支撐試板第二次焊接工藝參數見表4。采用表4 中的參數對試板進行第二次焊接試驗,焊縫形貌如圖4 所示,第1 條為摸索參數,第2 條、第3 條、第4 條形成一組大中小的參數,相鄰兩條焊縫焊接線能量相差10%,但線能量最大的焊縫4 表面出現咬邊。因零件試制進度較緊,將第2 條和第3 條作為線能量的最小值和最大值,中間插入一個參數作為中間值,即高壓150 kV,聚焦電流2 130 mA,束流25.3 mA,焊速8.2 mm/s,函數X=Y=2.7,頻率500 Hz。相鄰線能量相差5%,符合GE 標準要求。

表3 高壓渦輪導向器前支撐試板第一次焊接工藝參數

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圖3 第一次焊接試驗焊縫形貌

表4 高壓渦輪導向器前支撐試板第二次焊接工藝參數

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圖4 第二次焊接試驗焊縫形貌

3 零件驗證

按照第二次試驗后確定的焊接工藝參數對零件進行焊接,該參數包含3 個能級,見表5。

焊后零件通過目視檢驗、X 光檢驗、熒光檢驗,均滿足P8TF10 標準要求,在零件上切取名義能量、最小能量和最大能量下的金相試樣(如圖5所示),測量最小焊縫寬度和最小熔化寬度均滿足P8TF10 標準要求,故零件符合設計要求。

表5 零件驗證焊接工藝參數

images/BZ_61_307_1790_466_1908.pngimages/BZ_61_466_1790_565_1908.pngimages/BZ_61_565_1790_711_1908.pngimages/BZ_61_711_1790_812_1908.pngimages/BZ_61_812_1790_963_1908.pngimages/BZ_61_963_1790_1225_1850.pngimages/BZ_61_963_1850_1028_1908.png images/BZ_61_1028_1850_1095_1908.png images/BZ_61_1095_1850_1225_1908.pngimages/BZ_61_307_1908_466_1968.pngimages/BZ_61_307_1967_466_2027.pngimages/BZ_61_466_1908_565_1968.pngimages/BZ_61_565_1908_711_1968.pngimages/BZ_61_711_1908_812_1968.pngimages/BZ_61_812_1908_963_1968.pngimages/BZ_61_963_1908_1028_1968.pngimages/BZ_61_1028_1908_1095_1968.pngimages/BZ_61_1095_1908_1225_1968.pngimages/BZ_61_466_1967_565_2027.pngimages/BZ_61_565_1967_711_2027.pngimages/BZ_61_711_1967_812_2027.pngimages/BZ_61_812_1967_963_2027.pngimages/BZ_61_963_1967_1028_2027.pngimages/BZ_61_1028_1967_1095_2027.pngimages/BZ_61_1095_1967_1225_2027.pngimages/BZ_61_307_2027_466_2086.pngimages/BZ_61_466_2027_565_2086.pngimages/BZ_61_565_2027_711_2086.pngimages/BZ_61_711_2027_812_2086.pngimages/BZ_61_812_2027_963_2086.pngimages/BZ_61_963_2027_1028_2086.pngimages/BZ_61_1028_2027_1095_2086.pngimages/BZ_61_1095_2027_1225_2086.png

圖5 零件焊縫截面形貌

4 結 論

(1)通過對試板進行焊接試驗,得出了高壓渦輪導向器前支撐的焊接工藝參數,采用該工藝參數焊接零件,焊縫內部無未熔合、氣孔及裂紋等缺陷,焊縫的最小焊縫寬度、最小熔化寬度亦滿足GE 標準要求,零件通過GE 審批。

(2)該零件成功試制,為后續外貿零件的電子束焊接打下了基礎,在工藝參數試驗及參數選擇上,為后續零件提供了參考。另外,填補了西航公司在GE 零件電子束焊接上的空白。

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Electron-beam Welding Technology of High-pressure Turbine Guide Front Support

WEI Jin,KANG Wenjun,WANG Jiantao,CHEN Tao
(AECC Xi'an Aero-engine Co., Ltd., Xi'an 710021, China)

Abstract: Based on analyzing the requirement of General Electric Company(GE) high-pressure turbine guide front support,INCO718 plate with equal thickness of parts welded joint was used for test,a welding parameter was selected at first,the beam current and welding speed were changed at the same time,a set of welding parameters with margin was finally developed.The parts welded by the set of welding parameters were inspected by visual,X-ray,fluorescence and metallography,there were no unfused,pores and cracks in the weld,and minimum weld width,minimum melting width and surface quality all met the requirements of GE electron-beam welding P8TF10 standard.

Key words: high-pressure turbine guide front support; electron-beam welding; INCO718; margin

中圖分類號: TG456.3

文獻標識碼: B

DOI: 10.19291/j.cnki.1001-3938.2019.6.010

作者簡介: 韋 瑾(1987—),女,工程師,目前主要負責航空發動機高能束焊接技術工作。

收稿日期:2018-12-24

編輯:張 歌

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